Enforcing a foreign judgment in New York can be accomplished depending on the type of foreign judgment, and how you obtained your New York judgment. The procedure requires an understanding of not only New York law, but international law. If you are interested in enforcing a New York Judgment in a foreign court please see: Enforcement of New York Judgments Abroad. If you are interested in enforcing a New York judgment in Korea please see our sister blog at: Enforcing of Foreign Judgments in Korea.
Recognition of judgments by foreign courts is not automatic in New York, a procedure in place must be followed prior to recognition of the foreign judgment in New York.
The judgment must first be authenticated in accordance with an Act of Congress or the statutes of New York, and filed within 90 days of the date of authentication. An exemplified copy is needed that has been authenticated either through the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters and if the nation is not a party to it, through consular legalization.
After the foreign judgment is authenticated, a New York court must determine if the foreign country judgment was rendered by a court which provides impartial tribunals or procedures compatible with due process of law and that the foreign court had personal jurisdiction over the defendant. All of the grounds for recognition are contained within CPLR 5301 through 5309, which adopts the Uniform Foreign Country Money-Judgments Recognition Act.
New York has found that these standards are met in judgments from Canada, Mexico, England, Bermuda, Japan, India, Korea, Brazil, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Hong Kong, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Romania and most developed nations. On the other hand, judgments from Liberia, Iran and Ecuador fail to meet these requirements.
To meet your burden of proof for recognition, you must file an affidavit along with the certified copy, stating:
- the judgment was not obtained by default in appearance or via a confession of judgment;
- that it is unsatisfied in whole or in part;
- the amount remaining unpaid and that its enforcement has not been stayed; and
- the name and last known address of the judgment debtor.
There is an extra added wrinkle if your foreign judgment is also a default judgment. To obtain recognition of a foreign default judgment, there are a few steps to take in addition to the authentication process outlines.
- The easiest avenue is to file a motion for summary judgment in lieu of complaint pursuant to CPLR 3213. This sets up a summary proceeding designed to determine whether you properly served the defendant in the out-of-state case, whether the court had jurisdiction to hear the case, and whether recognizing the judgment would violate public policy.
- Alternatively, you can bring a new action in a New York court based on the judgment in hand.
Once a foreign judgment has been domesticated in New York it can be enforced the same as any other New York judgment.
Other articles that may be of interest to the readers:
- Enforcing Foreign Judgments in New York
- Enforcing a New York Judgment Abroad
- Beating Summary Judgment in a New York Court
- Contracts with Foreign Subsidiaries
- Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Korea
*Gene Berardelli may be contacted at: GeneBerardelli@ipglegal.com.
Gene is a New York street-smart attorney with an extreme passion for success. Gene specializes in litigation, arbitration and general corporate law for New York-based and international clients. He, also, is the host of a popular New York talk radio program.
- Enforcing Foreign Judgments in New York: Personal Jurisdiction Necessary?
- Enforcing a New York Judgment Abroad: Service under the Hague Service Convention
- International Divorces in New York Courts: International Family Law Basics
- New York Business Basics: Registering Your Foreign Business in New York
- Beating Summary Judgment in a New York Court: NY Litigation Basics
- International Law Basics: Authenticating International Documents In New York